German Federation for Solar Mobility
EVS18 - Electric Vehicle Symposium - October 20.-24. 2001 in Berlin
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Solar Vehicles and the Grid System
At the first Swiss Tour de Sol in
1985, solar cars had to use power from the onboard solar
The definition of the solar vehicle at present is a vehicle with direct or indirect connection to a solar power source. The solar generator (or similar sustainable source from wind or water power etc.) can be installed on the vehicle, at home or elsewhere. It delivers the required amount of energy to recharge the batteries. The energy is fed into the grid system and can be taken out elsewhere from the system.
This is very similar to the money and bank system: The money is paid in (..fed in) somewhere, and it can be drawn out at any other place and any other time. The relation between the money and the owner is mainly on paper: the account shows in writing, how much one owns (money . energy .).
The balance should be positive, i.e. the amount of energy generated by the solar power plant should exceed the energy taken out for driving the vehicle. If the energy balance is positive, the vehicle is running on solar energy only and can be defined as "Solar Vehicle"
Solar Mobility is possible now! Small home solar power plants exist in large numbers in Germany. These are solar power stations of 1 to 5 kW feeding the energy into the grid. About 100.000 will be installed under the EEG (Reneable Energy Law) within the next few years.
The Solar Grid System
This idea or model is the basis for the "Park & Charge®" system of public charging stations for electric vehicles, which at present exists in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, France and Italy.
Park & Charge® System
The well known Park & Charge® system of public charging stations for electric vehicles exists in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, France and Italy. Ideally the power supply is from solar- wind- or water-powered generators. All charging stations are connected to the grid.
The Park & Charge®-system consists of simple power outlets 230V 16 A and all necessary fuses and protection circuits in a metal box with lock. The key for this lock is the same key for all Park & Charge® stations in Europe.
The participants get this key against a nominal fee. In addition they pay for the "vignette", a sign to be posted in the electric vehicle and documenting that this car is participating in the Park & Charge® system.
The vignette must be renewed every year against a nominal fee depending on the required power, i.e. cars with higher power requirements pay a higher rate. The fee is a "flat rate", there is no individual bill for the electricity for charging.
The aim is to provide electricity for electric vehicles when they are away from home. Thus the vehicles can be recharged while shopping, sightseeing, eating in restaurants or even sleeping in hotels (Hilton Basel).
The Park & Charge® system was first installed in 1992 in Bern (Switzerland). Now (year 2001) there are over 120 Park & Charge® stations in Switzerland (500), about 20 in Germany (300), 8 in Italy (13) and 6 in Austria (58).
In brackets are the numbers for other power outlets for electric vehicles, most of them on private basis, as listed in the LEM-NET (a list of public charging places, available as book. There is some information published by the TWIKE-Klub in the Internet under www.twikeklub.ch.
In Germany the address for the Park
& Charge® System is:
Kurzangaben zur Poster-Präsentation "Why Solar Powered Mobility" von Roland Reichel, bsm:
Since an electric car is only as clean as the energy which it uses, the "Real Zero Emission Vehicle is defined as vehicle with clean energy supply from solar, wind, water or similar sustainable and clean power source. The German Solar Car Federation (Bundesverband Solarmobil e.V.) demands laws or regulations for Europe for "Real Zero Emission Vehicles" similar to the USA "Clean Air Act".
The solar power supply is feasible for so-called "LEMs" (Leicht-Elektro-Mobile = light electric vehicles) with low power requirements. LEMs require typically less than 10 kWh per 100 km. Solar power stations of 1 kWp would be sufficient for more than 10.000 km per year. This is more than the typical commuter vehicle requires, which runs about 6.500 km per year.
report includes quotations of two research reports, both
from the "Forschungszentrum Jülich" and the
DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt), showing
the possibilities for solar supply for all commuter cars
in Germany by using the area of typical parking lots only
for solar panels, and showing the low energy requirements
for battery cars in comparison to any other cars (power
from petrol or hydrogen).
The main solar panel of typically 1 kWp is installed on the roof of the house. This model is called the solar-net and is the basis for the "Park & Charge®" system of public charging stations for electric vehicles, which at present exists in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, France and Italy. There is a common key for all Park & Charge® stations in Europe. More information can be found in the Internet at www.twikeklub.ch. There is a printed version of the LEM-NET as well.
The report shows clearly, that solar mobility is possible now. The number of photovoltaic installations of more than 1 kW in Germany will reach a 100.000 or more in the next few years. The vehicles are available: the well known City-El, a single seater, needs 6 to 8 kWh only per 100 km, the TWIKE, a two-seater, needs even less with 3 to 6 kWh per 100 km. Other cars like the TH!NK will be marketed soon, and "larger" electric cars like the Citroen Saxo and Berlingo are available as well. There are also electric scooters like the Peugeot Scootelec and the Taiwan made EVT 4000 and a growing number of electric power assisted bikes are available. Besides solar mobility on land, there are many solar boats and ships, and solar planes and solar railways are already demonstrated.